This is a total mystery. These labels were found inside a "Recobin" a carry-case for 10-inch 78 rpm records. It's manufactured by the I.M. Hescheles Company, and distributed by Recordex. The labels are for numbering the records individually to match the dividers inside the box. It's a simple item that was probably very common sixty years ago.
It's obviously the predecessor to the 45rpm box and those very awkward 12" boxes that Crosley is making now.
I found a related patent from 1921 belonging to an Isadore M. Hescheles for a box partition. It's Patent number 1,379, 563. The same man in 1927 composed the music to the vacation waltz and provided the publishing. He was alreayd in the biz in 1918.
In the Printing trade Blue Book of that year they list him as the owner of the Vienna Bindery on 137-139 East 25th street. That fills in some blanks. Isadore was a printmaker and one that was clever, and inventive. He parlayed his shop into other busiensses through pure savviness.